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WAR CRIMES

WAR CRIMES

 

Why in News?

Recently, the International Criminal Court(ICC) has announced that it will open an investigation into possible war crimes committed by Russia in Ukraine.

About

  • War crimes are defined as serious violations of humanitarian laws during a conflict.
  • The definition, established by the Rome Statute of the ICC, is derived from theGeneva Conventions 1949.
  • It is based on the idea that individuals can be held liable for the actions of a state or its military.
  • The taking of hostages, willful killings, torture or inhuman treatment of prisoners of war, and forcing children to fight are some of the more obvious examples.

War Crimes - War crimes are defined as occurring in a domestic conflict or a war between two states.

Humanity Crimes - Genocide & humanitarian crimes can happen in peacetime and other times too.

Geneva Conventions –

  • The Geneva Conventions (1949) and their Additional Protocols are international treaties that contain the most important rules limiting the barbarity of war.
  • They protect people who do not take part in the fighting and those who can no longer fight.
  • India is a party to the Geneva Convention.

First Geneva conventions - Protects wounded and sick soldiers on land during war.

Second Geneva Convention - Protects wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.

Third Geneva Convention - Applies to prisoners of war.

Fourth Geneva Convention - Affords protection to civilians, including in occupied territory.

INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

  • It is a permanent judicial body created by the 1998 Rome Statute of the ICC (its founding and governing document), and began functioning on 1st July 2002 when the Statute came into force.
  • Headquarter: The Hague, Netherlands
  • Members: 123 nations are States Parties to the Rome Statute and recognise the ICC’s authority.
  • The forum was established as a court of last resort to prosecute offences that would otherwise go unpunished, and has jurisdiction over four main crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.
  • India is not a member of ICC.

What is the International Crime Court? - WorldAtlas                                                     BEST TNPSC ACADEMY IN COIMBATORE