Organic farming avoids chemical pesticides and fertilizers and seeks to increase soil fertility through feeding soil micro-life with residues from life such as garbage compost and sewage, manure, plant residues, food processing wastes etc. Organic farming rely on biological processes to obtain high quality and yields which are as good as these achieved using modern techniques as agricultural production.
Organic farming means farming in the spirit of organic relationship between soil, water and plants; between soil, soil microbes and waste products; between the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom; between agriculture and forestry; between soil, water and atmosphere. Nature adopts different method to supply of nutrients to the soil and maintain the fertility of soil. The supply of nutrients are undisrupted in the nature. The plant leaves produces carbohydrates and later converting these carbohydrates into sugar, starch, cellulose, lignin etc.
Organic manure involves blending the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potash rich materials, in which the trace elements are present in proportion and the crucial carbon- nitrogen ratio (C/N) is neither too high nor too low. This kind of preparation is within the competence of farmers. There is no need of adding some nitrogenous fertilizer as supplement. The chemical nitrogenous fertilizer upsets the nutrient balance of soil. Nitrogenous fertilizer is known as stimulant of growth and there is craze for it among the farmers.
Practices for Organic Farming
Organic Agriculture aims at the development of viable and sustainable agriculture. Organic food is produced by the following a system of farm management practices that seek to nurture ecosystem which achieve sustainable productivity and provide weed and pest control through diverse mix of mutually dependent life forms, recycling plant and animal residues, crop selection and rotation, water management, tillage and cultivation.
Soil fertility is maintained and enhanced by a system which optimize biological activity and the physical and mineral nature of the soil as a means to provide a balanced nutrient supply of plant and animal life as well as to conserve soil resources.The pest and disease management is attained by means of encouragement of balance most predator relationship and augmentation of beneficial insect population, biological and cultural control and mechanical removal of pests and affected plant parts.
Components of Organic Farming
(i) Organic Manures
(ii) Biological Pest Management
(iii) Non-Chemical Weed Control - Mechanical method of weed control is generally practiced to reduce the weed population.
(iv) Agronomical Practices - Crop rotation, mixed cropping, green manuring practices will improve the physical and chemical properties of soil.
(v) Alley Cropping - Integration of perennial plants (mostly leguminous) in the farming system is called alley cropping.
Principles of Organic Farming
- No Chemical Fertilizer
- No Use of Pesticides
- Maintenance of Healthy Soil
- No Use of Herbicide
Advantages of Organic Farming
- It does not result in any environmental pollution because it avoids use of chemical and plant protection chemicals.
- Less energy is used in organic farming compared to conventional agriculture.
- Less mechanisation is needed.
- Less disturbance of soil, proper structure, high organic matter content will be maintained.
- Organic food fetches more price than the produce obtained by conventional methods.
In conclusion, as organic food environmentally friendly, therefore it is the safest option for consumption. It is and fresh and full of nutrients and vitamins. Environmentally friendly organic farming is beneficial for the environment, plants, and animals as well. The popularity of consuming organic food is increasing day by day as there are many health benefits of consuming organic foods. Organic foods are a very good option for human health, and we should always choose such things that are full of nutrients and health.
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