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All Short Messages - Science & Techonlogy
  • What is epilepsy?

    Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.

    Anyone can develop epilepsy. Epilepsy affects both males and females of all races, ethnic backgrounds and ages.

    Symptoms

    Because epilepsy is caused by abnormal activity in the brain, seizures can affect any process your brain coordinates. Seizure signs and symptoms may include:

    Temporary confusionA staring spellUncontrollable jerking movements of the arms and legsLoss of consciousness or awarenessPsychic symptoms such as fear, anxiety or deja vu.

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  • What is Space Junk?

    Space junk is the term used to describe man-made rubbish floating in space – often litter from space exploration, including spanners, nuts, bolts, gloves and shards of space craft.
    The majority of the debris in space is believed to consist of small particles but some objects are larger, including spent rocket stages, defunct satellites and collision fragments.
    As many as ten million pieces of human-made debris are estimated to be circulating in space at any one time.
    Experts believe that global positioning systems, international phone connections, television signals and weather forecasts could be affected by increasing levels of space junk.
    The windows of space shuttles are often chipped by space junk when returning to earth.

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  • Why do we lose weight while we sleep?

    The main thing that is changing overnight is the amount of water in your system. It's amazing how much water weighs! A gallon of water weighs 8 pounds, and a pint of water (16 ounces) weighs 1 pound (in metric, 1 liter of water weighs 1 kilogram). This means that if you drink a 1-liter bottle of soda, you instantly gain 1 kilogram (2.2 pounds) from the water! That's a big weight change, and it can happen very quickly.
    Overnight, there are two processes that cause you to lose water gradually. The first is respiration. Each time you exhale, you lose a little bit of water (exhale onto a cool piece of glass and you can see this moisture). The second is transpiration through the skin, also known as sweating. Over the course of a night, both of these processes eliminate quite a bit of water.

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  • How does HIV evade host immune system?

    HIV consist of 2 Outer layers and 2 RNA bands With 2 Reverse Transcript molecules to write the code of the HIV virus as same as the host DNA.As soon as the virus enters the body it attacks the ribosomes and writes a PROTEIN covering around the virus which makes it look like a cell of the body and not a foreign body ...As soon as the immune system does not recognize it ..It starts to attack the T-cells of the body and as the level of T-cells starts to decrease and the immune system starts to get weaker day by day... As the HIV virus transcript itself and the RNA gets transcripted into the DNA just like that of the Host Body and it can take up to 14 years to detect it and the host will get too weak to be fatal even with a cold cough.

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  • What is Nipah virus?

    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerging disease which can be transmitted to humans from animals. The natural host of the virus are fruit bats.
    The infection was first identified in 1999 during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore.
    Nearly 300 human cases with over 100 deaths were reported at the time. In order to stop the outbreak, more than a million pigs were euthanized, causing tremendous trade loss for Malaysia.
    Nipah virus infection can be prevented by avoiding exposure to sick pigs and bats in endemic areas and not drinking raw date palm sap.
    Symptom of the infection include fever, headache, drowsiness, respiratory illness, disorientation and mental confusion. These signs and symptoms can progress to coma within 24-48 hours.
    There is no vaccine for either humans or animals.

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  • Parker Solar Probe
    Why in news?
    NASA is going to launch Parker Solar Probeonboard of Delta IV Heavy launch vehicle in 2018 to explore the sun’s outer atmosphere.

    What is Parker Solar Probe?
    The name of the probe initially called the Solar Probe Plus has been renamed as the Parker Solar Probe in honour of astrophysicist Eugene Parker. This is the first time NASA has named a spacecraft after a living person.
    The 10-feet high Parker Solar Probe will fly within 6.4 million km of the sun’s surface right into the solar atmosphere.
    This will be NASA’s first mission to the sun and its outermost atmosphere corona. The mission is scheduled to end in June 2025.
    Primary goals of mission: Trace how energy and heat move through solar corona. Explore what accelerates solar wind as well as solar energetic particles.

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  • SPARCS
    Why in news?
    The spacecraft, known as the Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat, or SPARCS, is a new NASA-funded space telescope and will be launched in 2021 .
    About SPARCS
    The satellite will monitor the flares and sunspots of small stars called M dwarfs to assess how habitable the environment is for planets orbiting them.
    The stars that SPARCS will focus on are small, dim, and cool by comparison to the Sun. Having less than half the Sun’s size and temperature, they shine with barely one per cent its brightness.
    Astronomers have discovered that essentially every M dwarf star has at least one planet orbiting it, and about one system in four has a rocky planet located in the star’s habitable zone.
    Since M dwarfs are so plentiful, astronomers estimate that our galaxy alone contains roughly 40 billion rocky planets in habitable zones around their stars. This means that most of the habitable-zone planets in our galaxy orbit M dwarfs.
    Need for SPARCS
    Although the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope can view stars at ultraviolet wavelengths unhindered, its overcrowded observing schedule would let it dedicate only the briefest of efforts to M dwarfs.

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  • Microbeads
    Why in news?

    What are microbeads?
    Microbeads are tiny bits of plastic found in exfoliating body washes and facial scrubs.
    The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified microbeads as “unsafe” for use in cosmetic products.

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  • ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its forty second flight, successfully launched the 710 kg Cartosat-2 Series Remote Sensing Satellite along with 30 co-passenger satellites today from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This flight is designated as PSLV-C40.

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  • Germany-based researchers have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) system that can create a high-definition (HD) version of low resolution images.

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  • NASA is evaluating the use of a coin-sized thermometer aboard a spacecraft for characterising comets and assisting the redirection or destruction of Earth-bound asteroids. 

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  • IIT Madras students have set Asia and India records for operating the largest number of robots to clean an area.

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  • Europe-based startup Treepex has developed a pocket-sized device called 'Treepex' which it claims can transform polluted air into fresh oxygen and mineral-enriched air.

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  • The launch of IRSO’s eight navigation satellite IRNSS-1H onbaord of PSLV-C39 from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh was unsuccessful. 

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  • The Indian Institutes of Technology, Bombay and Indore, have jointly developed a biosensor that makes it possible to detect kidney disorders in less than 8 minutes.

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  • Dr Pinaki Panigrahi, a US-based doctor has discovered an inexpensive prevention technique against sepsis. He along with members of his team has found that feeding babies with probiotic bacteria dramatically reduces the risk of sepsis in newborns.

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  • India’s first calf delivered by a surrogate or recipient cow through In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) technology carried out in a mobile laboratory was born in Indapur, Pune (Maharashtra). It has been named as Vijay. 

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  • Scientists in the United Kingdom (UK) have developed the world’s smallest surgical robot called Versius.

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  • Scientists have developed an artificial womb that has been successfully used to incubate healthy baby lambs for a week, an advance that may one day be able to save the lives of extremely premature human babies. 

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  • The International Space Station is expected to get its first supercomputer next week. Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) will launch a supercomputer into space on the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, as part of a joint experiment with the US space agency NASA.

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  • Indian Institute of Science researchers have developed a highly sensitive nanometer-scale carbon monoxide sensor by employing an innovative fabrication technique.

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  • Israel has launched its first environmental research satellite named as Venus (Vegetation and Environment Monitoring New Micro-Satellite).

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  • ISRO and NASA are working towards realisation of NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) mission by 2021. In the mission, NASA is responsible for development of L-band SAR and ISRO is responsible for development of S-band SAR. 

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  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has deployed an indigenous regional positioning system named as “Navigation with Indian Constellation” (NavIC).

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  • The researchers at the IIT Kharagpur have developed a low-cost dirt detector that alerts authorities when a place needs cleaning.

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  • Scientists have, for the first time, successfully freed embryos of a piece of faulty DNA that causes deadly heart disease to run in families. 

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  • Scientists from Oregon Health and Science University, US for first time have successfully edited genes of human embryos to correct defective DNA that cause inherited diseases.

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  • NASA, along with student teams across the US, is sending high-altitude balloons that will test the ability of life to survive beyond Earth as well as livestream footage of the upcoming total solar eclipse from the edge of space.

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  • Scientists have developed a new artificial intelligence software that can create 3D models from 2D photographs, an advance that could allow future robots to navigate in the real world.

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  • Scientists for the first time have produced human antibodies in the laboratory. They have developed revolutionary technique which can help in rapid development of new vaccines to treat a wide range of infectious diseases.

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  • India’s first dedicated space observatory AstroSat along with other space and earth-based observatories have detected a massive coronal explosion on Proxima Centauri, sun’s closest star neighbour.

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  • According to study conducted by researchers from University of Hyderabad, Castor bean plants can prove useful in fighting soil pollution.

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  • Scientists from the University of Cambridge have developed super-stretchy and strong artificial (synthetic) spider silk, almost entirely composed of water.

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  • Scientists from ETH Zurich in Switzerland have developed a 3D-printed soft silicone heart that closely resembles and functions like the human organ.

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  • United States Navy successfully tested the world’s first-ever active Laser Weapons System (LaWS).

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  • Scientists from University of Cambridge, UK have discovered the smallest star in the universe. It has been named as EBLM J0555-57Ab.

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  • Indian scientists have discovered an extremely large supercluster of galaxies, which is as big as 20 million billion suns. Pune-based Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, IUCAA team of astronomers has named it Saraswati.

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  • Scientists in New Zealand says that a vaccine has for the first time been shown to protect against the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhoea. 

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  • In the US, scientists, including one of Indian origin, have developed a new electrode design that may allow smart phone batteries to be charged within seconds.

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