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  • Global Depository Receipts

    Indian companies are allowed to raise equity capital in the international markets through the issue of GDR.
    GDR are designated in USD / Euros or any other foreign currency.
    The proceeds of GDR can be utilized for various purposes.
    American Depository Receipts

    These are like shares issued to US retail and institutional investors and are listed in NASADAQ/NYSE
    They are entitled like share to bonus, stock spilt and dividend.
    ADR route is taken as non-USA companies are NOT allowed to list on US stock exchanges by issuing shares.

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  • Foreign portfolio investment (FPI)

    FPI consists of securities and other financial assets passively held by foreign investors. It does not provide investor with direct ownership of financial assets. It is relatively liquid depending on volatility of the market. In India, FPIs are allowed to invest in various debt market instruments such as government bonds, treasury bills, state development loans (SDLs) and corporate bonds, but with certain restrictions and limits. FPI is part of country’s capital account and shown on its balance of payments (BOP).

    Differences between FPI and FDI

    FPI lets investor purchase stocks, bonds or other financial assets in foreign country. In this case, investor does not actively manage investments or companies that issue investment. It also does not have control over securities or business. In contrast, FDI lets investor purchase direct business interest in foreign country. The investor also controls his monetary investments and actively manages company into which he puts money. FPI is more liquid and less risky than FDI.

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  • Green GDP

    Green GDP is a term used for expressing GDP after adjusting for environment degradations.

    Green GDP is an attempt to measure the growth of an economy by subtracting the costs of environmental damages and ecological degradations from the GDP
    The concept was first initiated through a System of National Accounts.
    The System of National Accounts (SNA) is an accounting framework for measuring the economic activities of production, consumption and accumulation of wealth in an economy during a period of time.
    When information on economy’s use of the natural environment is integrated into the system of national accounts, it becomes green national accounts or environmental accounting.
    The process of environmental accounting involves three steps viz. Physical accounting; Monetary valuation; and integration with national Income/wealth Accounts:
    Physical accounting determines the state of the resources, types, and extent (qualitative and quantitative) in spatial and temporal terms.
    Monetary valuation is done to determine its tangible and intangible components.
    Thereafter, the net change in natural resources in monetary terms is integrated into the Gross Domestic Product in order to reach the value of Green GDP.

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  • Top 10 Wealthiest Country
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    ▪️India is the 6th wealthiest country in the world with a total wealth of $8,230 billion, according to the AfrAsia Bank Global Wealth Migration Review.

    ✔️ Top 10 in the List :

    ▪️US ($62,584 billion)
    ▪️China ($24,803 billion)
    ▪️Japan ($19,522 billion)
    ▪️UK $(9,919 billion)
    ▪️Germany ($9,660 billion)
    ▪️India ($8,230 billion)
    ▪️Australia ($6,142 billion)
    ▪️Canada ($6,393 billion)
    ▪️France ($6,649 billion)
    ▪️Italy ($4,276 billion)

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  • IndAS

    Why in news?
    The government and the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) may postpone the implementation of new accounting standards for banks because of the legislative changes and additional capital requirements the process would entail.
    What is IndAS?
    IndAS (Indian Accounting Standards) is the new accounting standard for banks.Banks and non-banking financial companies are due to switch to Indian Accounting Standards (IndAS) from 1 April 2018.
    They currently follow Indian generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) standards.
    Legislative changes required: The implementation of IndAS for public sector banks requires an amendment to the Banking Regulation Act.
    The transition to IndAS is expected to see a significant jump in bad-loan provisions.Under the current rules, banks set aside money to cover loans that have turned bad. Under IndAS, they must make provisions after assessing the expected loss from the time a loan is originated rather than waiting for a trigger event.
    These norms, which are in line with international norms, the International Financial Reporting Standards, were designed to avoid credit shocks like those seen in the aftermath of the global financial crisis in 2008

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  • Key facts from economic Survey 2018.
    In comparison to developed countries, India collects a lower share of direct taxes in total taxes. For example, in India, states generate 6% of their revenue from direct taxes, as compared to 19% in Brazil. Rural local governments, in India, raise 6% of their total revenue from direct taxes compared to 40% in Brazil. Urban local governments raise 44% of their revenue from their own sources.
    Several states have not devolved enough taxation powers to local bodies. Further, local governments collect only a small fraction of their potential tax revenue. For example, rural local bodies collect around one third of the potential property tax. Therefore, local governments rely heavily on devolved funds from central and state governments.
    These devolved funds are largely tied in nature, to either specific sectors or schemes. This constrains the ability of local governments to spend on local public good as per their own priorities. There needs to be a focus on revival of investment. However, the decline in investment will be difficult to reverse because: (i) it stems from the balance sheet stress of companies, and  (ii) its large magnitude. Easing the cost of doing business, creating a transparent, stable tax and regulatory environment, and supporting small and medium industries will help revive private investment.

    The data on rainfall, temperature, and crop production shows a longterm trend of rising temperature, declining average precipitation, and an increase in extreme precipitation events. The average decline in rainfall between 1970’s and 2000’s is 26 mm in Kharif season and 33 mm in Rabi season. This has significant implications on agriculture, especially in unirrigated areas. Such changes in temperature and precipitation will result in estimated overall farm income losses of 15% to 18%, and further, 20% to 25% for unirrigated areas.

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  • Asian Development Bank, ADB and Government of India today signed 80 million dollar loan to help modernize Technical and Vocational Education and Training, TVET institutions and improve the skills ecosystem in Himachal Pradesh. 

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  • The World Bank has said that the Goods and Services Tax (GST) and reforms push by the government will catapult the country to high middle income economy in 30 years. 

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  • China-sponsored Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) has approved USD 2 million loan (Rs. 13,000 crores) for five project in Andhra Pradesh.

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  • The Government of India and the World Bank signed a $200 million Loan Agreement for the Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project.

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  • The Government of India and the World Bank signed a $200 million Loan Agreement for the Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project.

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  • Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) became the first Indian company to cross Rs6 trillion market capitalisation.

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  • India has slapped anti-dumping duty on certain stainless steel products from the European Union and several other nations.

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  • The Tata conglomerate is the only Indian brand to feature among the top five in the India's most attractive brands index which has been topped by South Korean consumer electronics maker Samsung.

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  • Facebook joins Apple, Google in top 10 most valuable brands list

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  • The Airtel Payments Bank (APB) has become the India’s first payments bank to integrate the UPI on its digital platform.

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  • M Nagaraja Sarma has been appointed the chairman-cum-managing director (CMD) of the United India Insurance Company Ltd.

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  • The Union Ministry of Commerce and Industries has set up Contact@DGFT, an online service facility for effective resolution of foreign trade-related issues of importers and exporters. 

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  • State-run oil marketing company Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) is all set to become a Maharatna company. Presently it is having Navratna status.

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  • The Indian Commodity Exchange (ICEX) has become the world’s first derivatives exchange to launch diamond futures contract.

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  • A huge rise in Alibaba Group’s earnings and the stock price has propelled its founder and executive chairman Jack Ma back to the top of the list of Asia's wealthiest people.

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  • India has imposed anti-dumping duty on Chinese tempered glass, used for protecting mobile phone screens. 

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  • Government has revised the base year of All-India Wholesale Price Index (WPI) from 2004-05 to 2011-12.

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  • The proposed merger between Bharti AirtelBSE and Telenor India has been approved by the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT). 

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  • BSE Ltd announced that market regulator Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has approved the appointment of Dhirendra Swarup as the chairman of the board of directors of the company.

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  • Yatra Online Inc, India’s second-largest online travel operator, has acquired corporate travel services provider Air Travel Bureau (ATB) in an estimated cash-and debt deal of $22.5-27.5 million.

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  • The Indian economy is forecast to grow at 7.2% in 2017-18 and 7.7% in 2018-19, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) said in its latest forecast.

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  • The Cabinet has given an in-principle approval to sell the government’s entire 51.11 per cent stake in Hindustan Petroleum Corp Ltd to Oil and Natural Gas Corp in a bid to create a state-run integrated oil major that can compete with private and foreign players.

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  • NITI Aayog Vice Chairman Arvind Panagariya has said, India's GDP could rise to about 8 trillion dollars over the next 15 years if the country registers an economic growth of 8 per cent annually.

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  • Retail inflation hit a "historically low" level of 1.54 per cent in June this year. Inflation had stood at 2.18 per cent in May this year, and at 5.77 per cent in June last year. 

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  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of India signed a $275 million loan on 19th June, 2017 for improving urban services in 64 small towns in the State of Madhya Pradesh.

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  • Tata Group and American aerospace giant Lockheed Martin have signed an unprecedented deal to produce, operate and export the combat-proven F-16 fighters in India.

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  • Switzerland has ratified automatic exchange of information(AEOI) sharing with India and 40 other countries to facilitate immediate sharing of details about suspected black money.

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  • SEBI Approves Airtel and Telenor Merger

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  • India's tourism growth reached 15.4 per cent while global tourism growth was 4.6 per cent.

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  • IOC is India's most profitable public sector company

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  • Google’s Rajan Anandan Appointed Chairman of IAMAI

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  • BSE Institute will organise a two-day 'Dalal Street Lit Fest 2017' at its premises in Mumbai.

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  • Central Statistical Organisation, CSO has pegged advance GDP growth estimate for current fiscal at 7(point)1 per cent, the same as projected earlier.

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  • Airtel Payments Bank, the country's first payment banking entity, will go for selling simpler third party insurance and loan-related products within a year in order to bolster its revenue stream.

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