GK Short Messages
Balphakram National Park Meghalaya
Nokrek National Park Meghalaya
Bandhavgarh National Park Madhya Pradesh
Kanha National Park Madhya Pradesh
Madhav National Park Madhya Pradesh
Mandla Fossils National Park Madhya Pradesh
Van Vihar National Park Madhya Pradesh
Panna National Park Madhya Pradesh
Pench National Park Madhya Pradesh
Sanjay National Park Madhya Pradesh
Satpura National Park Madhya Pradesh
Bandipur National Park Karnataka
Bannerghatta National Park Karnataka
Kudremukh National Park Karnataka
Nagarhole National Park Karnataka
Betla National Park Jharkhand
Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand
Bhitarkanika National Park Odisha
Blackbuck National Park Gujarat
Gir Forest National Park Gujarat
Marine Gulf of Kutch park Gujarat
Vansda National Park Gujarat
Sundarbans National Park West Bengal
Buxa Tiger Reserve West Bengal
Gorumara National Park West Bengal
Jaldapara National Park West Bengal
Neora Valley National Park West Bengal
Singalila National Park West Bengal
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Campbell Bay National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Galathea National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Mahatma National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Middle Button National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Mount Harriet National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
North Button National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
South Button National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Rani Jhansi National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Saddle Peak National Park Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Chandoli National Park Maharashtra
Negaon National Park Maharashtra
Sanjay Gandhi National Park Maharashtra
Tadoba National Park Maharashtra
Gugamal National Park Maharashtra
Jammu and Kashmir
Dachigam National Park Jammu and Kashmir
Hemis National Park Jammu and Kashmir
Kishtwar National Park Jammu and Kashmir
Salim Ali National Park Jammu and Kashmir
Darrah National Park Rajasthan
Desert National Park Rajasthan
Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan
Mount Abu Wildlife Sanctuary Rajasthan
Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan
Sariska Tiger Reserve Rajasthan
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park Assam
Kaziranga National Park Assam
Manas National Park Assam
Orang National Park Assam
Nameri National Park Assam
Nandankanan Zoological Park Odisha
Simlipal National Park Odisha
Dudhwa National Park Uttar Pradesh
Valmiki National Park Bihar
Eravikulam National Park Kerala
Mathikettan National Park Kerala
Periyar National Park Kerala
Silent Valley National Park Kerala
Gangotri National Park Uttarakhand
Govind Wildlife Sanctuary Uttarakhand
Guindy National Park Tamil Nadu
Gulf of Mannar National Park Tamil Nadu
Indira Sanctuary Tamil Nadu
Mudumalai National Park Tamil Nadu
Mukurthi National Park Tamil Nadu
Palani Hills National Park Tamil Nadu
Harike Wetland Punjab
Kalesar National Park Haryana
Sultanpur National Park Haryana
Great Himalayan National Park Himachal Pradesh
Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh
Indravati National Park Chhattisgarh
Kanger Ghati National Park Chhattisgarh
Jim Corbett National Park Uttarakhand
Nanda Devi National Park Uttarakhand
Rajaji National Park Uttarakhand
Valley of Flowers National Park Uttarakhand
Kasu Reddy National Park Telangana
Vanasthali National Park Telangana
Keibul Lamjao National Park Manipur
Sirohi National Park Manipur
Khangchendzonga Park Sikkim
Mouling National Park Arunachal Pradesh
Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh
Murlen National Park Mizoram
Blue Mountain National Park Mizoram
Papikonda National Park Andhra Pradesh
Sri Venkateswara Park Andhra Pradesh
Mollem National Park Goa
Mrugavani National Park Telangana
Indian History Important Dates
2300–1750 Indus Valley Civilization.
From 1500 Coming of the Aryans.
1200–800 Expansion of the Aryans in the Ganga Valley.
600 Age of the 16 Mahajanapadas of northern India.
563–483 Buddha’s Life-span.
540–468 Mahavir’s Life-span.
362–321 Nanda dynasty.
327–326 Alexander’s invasion of India. It opened a land route between India and Europe.
322 Accession of Chandragupta Maurya.
305 Defeat of Seleucus at the hands of Chandragupta Maurya.
273–232 Ashoka’s reign.
261 Conquest of Kalinga.
145–101 Regin of Elara, the Chola king of Sri Lanka.
58 Beginning of Vikram era.
78 Beginning of Saka era.
78-101 Kanishka’s reign.
319–320 Commencement of Gupta era.
380 Accession of Chandragupta II ‘Vikramaditya’
405–411 Visit of Chinese traveller Fahien.
415 Accession of Kumargupta I.
455 Accession of Skandagupta.
606–647 Harshavardhan’s reign.
712 First invasion in Sindh by Arabs (Mohd. Bin Qasim).
836 Accession of King Bhoja of Kannauj.
985 Accession of Rajaraja, the Chola ruler.
998 Accession of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni.
1001 First invasion of India by Mahmud Ghazni who defeated Jaipal, ruler of Punjab.
1025 Destruction of Somnath Temple by Mahmud Ghazni.
1191 First battle of Tarain.
1192 Second battle of Tarain.
1206 Accession of Qutubuddin Aibak to the throne of Delhi.
1210 Death of Qutubuddin Aibak.
1221 Chengiz Khan invaded India (Mongol invasion).
1236 Accession of Razia Sultana to the throne of Delhi.
1240 Death of Razia Sultana.
1296 Accession of Alauddin Khilji.
1316 Death of Alauddin Khilji.
1325 Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
1327 Transfer of capital from Delhi to Devagiri (Daulatabad) in Deccan by the Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq.
1336 Foundation of Vijaynagar empire in the South.
1351 Accession of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
1398 Timur’s invasion of India.
1469 Birth of Guru Nanak.
1494 Accession of Babur in Farghana.
1497–98 First voyage of Vasco da Gama to India (discovery of sea route to India via the Cape of Good Hope)
1526 First Battle of Panipat; Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi; foundation of Mughal dynasty by Babur.
1527 Battle of Khanwa-Babur defeated Rana Sanga.
1530 Death of Babur and accession of Humayun.
1539 Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battle of Chausa and became India’s emperor.
1555 Humayun recaptured the throne of Delhi.
1556 Second Battle of Panipat (Bairam Khan defeated Hemu).
1565 Battle of Talikota (Rakshasa-Tangadi).
1576 Battle of Haldighati-Rana Pratap was defeated by Akbar.
1582 Din-i-Ilahi founded by Akbar.
1600 English East India Company established.
1605 Death of Akbar and accession of Jahangir.
1606 Execution of Guru Arjun Dev, the 5th Guru of Sikhs.
1611 Jahangir marries Nurjahan.
1615 Sir Thomas Roe visits Jahangir.
1627 Birth of Shivaji and death of Jahangir.
1628 Shahjahan becomes emperor of India.
1631 Death of Mumtazmahal.
1634 The English permitted to trade in India (in Bengal).
1659 Accession of Aurangzeb, Shahjahan imprisoned.
1665 Shivaji imprisoned by Aurangzeb.
1666 Death of Shahjahan.
1675 Execution of Guru Teg Bahadur, the 9th Guru of Sikhs.
1680 Death of Shivaji.
1707 Death of Aurangzeb.
1708 Death of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs.
1739 Nadir Shah invades India.
1757 Battle of Plassey, establishment of British political rule in India at the hands of Lord Clive.
1761 Third battle of Panipat.
1764 Battle of Buxar.
1765 Clive appointed Company’s Governor in India.
1767–69 First Angle-Mysore War.
1780 Birth of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
1780-84 Second Anglo-Mysore War.
1784 Pitt’s India Act.
1790-92 Third Anglo-Mysore War.
1793 The Permanent Settlement of Bengal.
1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War;Death of Tipu Sultan.
1802 Treaty of Bassein.
1809 Treaty of Amritsar.
1829 Practice of Sati prohibited.
1830 Raja Rammohan Roy visits England.
1833 Death of Raja Rammohan Roy at Bristol, England.
1839 Death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
1839–42 First Anglo-Afghan War.
1845–46 First Anglo-Sikh War.
1852 Second Anglo-Burmese War.
1853 First Railway line opened between Bombay and Thane and a Telegraph line in Calcutta.
1857 The Sepoy Mutiny or First War of Independence.
1861 Birth of Rabindranath Tagore.
1869 Birth of Mahatma Gandhi.
1885 Foundation of Indian National Congress.
1889 Birth of Jawaharlal Nehru.
1897 Birth of Subhash Chandra Bose.
1903 Tibet Expedition.
1905 Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon.
1906 Foundation of Muslim League.
1911 Delhi Darbar, King George V and Queen visit India; Delhi becomes the capital of India.
1914 World War I begins.
1916 Lucknow Pact signed by Muslim League and Congress, Foundation of BHU, Home Rule League founded.
1918 World War I ends.
1919 Montague-Chelmsford Reforms introduced, Jallianwala Bagh massacre at Amritsar.
1920 Khilafat Movement launched, first meeting of All-India Trade Union Congress, Hunter Commission Report on Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Published First Non-cooperation movement launched by Gandhi.
1922 Violent incidents at Chaura Chauri Gandhi calls of Non-cooperation movement.
1925 Communist Party of India organised at Kanpur.
1927 Boycott of Simon Commission, Broadcasting started in India.
1928 Death of Lala Lajpat Rai, Nehru Report.
1929 Resolution of ‘Poorna Swaraj’ (complete independence) passed at Lahore Session of INC.
1930 Civil disobedience movement launched, Dandhi March by Mahatma Gandhi (April 6, 1930) First round table conference held in London.
1931 Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Civil Disobedience movement suspended Second round table conference held.
1932 MacDonald announces communal award (modified by Poona Pact, September 24).
1935 Government of India Act.
1937 Provincial Autonomy, Congress forms ministries.
1938 All India Kishan Sabha formed.
1939 World War II begins (September 3), Resignation of Congress Ministries in Provinces.
1941 Escape of Subhash Chandra Bose from India and death of Rabindranath Tagore.
1942 Arrival of Cripps Mission in India, Quit India movement launched (August 8).
1943–44 SC Bose forms Provisional Government of Free India and Indian National Army in Singapore; Bengal famine.
1945 Trial of Indian National Army at Red Fort, Shimla Conference; World War II ends.
1946 British Cabinet Mission visits India; Interim government formed at the Centre. The Muslim league decides on “Direct Action” for winning Pakistan.
1947 Division of India; India and Pakistan form separate independent dominions.
Nick Names of Important Indian cities
Pink City - Jaipur (Rajastan)
Garden City - Bangalore (Karnataka)
Diamond City - Surat (Gujarat)
Egg city - Namakkal (Tamilnadu)
Lake City - Udaipur (Rajastan)
Sun City - Jodhpur (Rajastan)
City of Palaces - Kolkata (West Bengal)
Bangle City - Hyderabad (Andra Pradesh)
Golden City - Jaisalmer(Rajastan)
City of Dawn - Auroville (Pondichery)
White City - Udaipur (Rajastan)
City of Golden Temple - Amritsar (Punjab)
Twin Cities - Hyderabad and Secundarabad (Andhra pradesh)
Pearl City - Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu)
Weavers city - Panipat (Haryana)
Temple City - Bhuvaneswar (Orissa)
Sandal Wood City - Mysore (Karnataka)
City of Blood - Tezpur (Assam)
Orange City - Nagpur (Maharashtra)
City of seven Islands - Mumbai (Maharashtra)
Government of India Act 1858
Indian National Congress (1885)
Partition of Bengal (1905)
Muslim League (1906)
Swadeshi Movement (1905)
Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)
Lucknow Pact (1916)
Home Rule Movement (1915-¬1916)
The Gandhian Era (1918-1947)
Khilafat Movement (1920)
The Rowlatt Act (1919)
Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (1919)
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920)
Chauri Chaura Incident (1922)
Swaraj Party (1922)
Simon Commission (1927)
Dandi March (1930)
Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)
The Government of India Act, 1935
Quit India Movement (1942)
Cabinet Mission Plan (1946)
Interim Government (1946)
Formation of Constituent Assembly (1946)
Mountbatten Plan (1947)
The Indian Independence Act, 1947
Partition of India 1947
*Some Important Facts related to Human Body*
Largest and strongest Bone in the body: *Femur (thigh bone)*
Smallest Bone in the body: *Stapes in ear*
Number of Cells in the body: *75 trillion*
Volume of Blood in the body: *6 litres (in 70 kg body)*
Number of Red Blood Cells (R.B.C.): In male: *5 to 6 million/cubic mm; In female: 4 to 5 million/cubic* mm
Life span of Red Blood Cells (R.B.C.): *100 to 120* days
Life span of *White Blood Cell* (W.B.C.): 3 - 4 days
Normal White Blood Cell (W.B.C.) count: *5000-10000/cubic mm*
Time taken by R.B.C. to complete one cycle of circulation: *20 seconds*
Other name of Red Blood Cell (R.B.C.): *Erythrocytes*
Largest White Blood Cells: *Monocytes*
Smallest White Blood Cells: *Lymphocyte*
Who discovered Blood Group: *Karl Landsteiner*
Blood Platelets count: *150,000 - 400,000 platelets per micro litre*
Haemoglobin (Hb): *In male: 14-15 gm/100 c.c. of blood; In female: 11-14 gm/100 c.c. of blood*
Hb content in body: *500 - 700 gm*
pH of Urine: *6.5 - 8*
pH of Blood: *7.36-7.41*
Volume of Semen: *2-5 ml/ejaculation*
Normal Sperm Count: *250-400 million/ejaculation*
Menstrual cycle: *28 days*
Menopause age: *45-50 years*
Blood clotting time: *3-5 minutes*
Weight of Brain: *1300-1400 gm in human adult*
Normal Blood Pressure (B.P.): *120/80 mm Hg*
Universal blood donor: *O*
Universal blood recipient: *AB*
Average body weight: *70 kg*
Normal body *temperature: 37 degree celsius*
Breathing Rate at rest: *12-16/minute*
Number of Spinal Nerves: *31 pairs*
Largest Endocrine Gland: *Thyroid gland*
Gestation period: *40 weeks or 9 calendar months*
Normal Heart Beat at rest: *72 beats per minute*
Largest Gland: *Liver*
Largest Muscle in the body: *Gluteus Maximus or Buttock Muscle*
Smallest Muscle in the body: *Stapedius*
Largest Artery: *Aorta*
Largest Vein: *Inferior Vena Cava*
Largest and longest Nerve: *Sciatic Nerve*
Longest Cell: *Neurons (nerve cells)*
Minimum distance for proper vision: *25 cm*
Pulse rate: *72 per minute*
Thinnest Skin: *Eyelids*
Weight of Heart: *200-300 gm*
COUNTRIES & THEIR PARLIAMENTS
Afghanistan — Shoora
Andorra — General Council
Albania — People's Assembly
Azerbaijan — Melli Majlis
Algeria — National People's Assembly
Angola — National People's Assembly
Argentina — National Congress
Australia — Federal Parliament
Austria — National Assembly
Bahamas — General Assembly
Bahrain — Consultative Council
Bangladesh — Jatiya Sansad
Belize — National Assembly
Bhutan — Tshogdu
Bolivia — National Congress
Brazil — National Congress
Brunei — National Assembly
Botswana — National Assembly
Britain — Parliment (House of Common's & House of Lords)
Bulgaria — Narodno Subranie.
Cambodia — National Assembly
Congo Democratic — Rep. of National Legislative Council
Colombia — Congress
Canada — Parliament
China — National People's Congress
Chile — Chamber of Deputies and Senate
Comoros — Legislative Council and Senate
Costa Rice — Legislative Council and Senate
Crotia — Sabor
Cuba — National Assembly of People's Power
Czech Republic — Chamber of Deputies and Senate
Denmark — Folketing
Ecuador — Natinal Congress
El Salvador — Legislative Assembly
East Timor — Constituent Assembly
Ethiopia — Federal Council and House of Representative
Egypt — People's Assembly
Fiji Islands — Senate & House of Representative
France — National Assembly
Finland — Eduskusta (Parliament)
Germany — Bundestag(LowerHouse),Bundesrat(UpperHouse)
Guyana — National Assembly
Greece — Chamber of Deputies
Hungary — National Assembly
Iceland — Althing
India — Parliament
Indonesia — People's Consultative Assembly
Iran — Majlis
Iraq — National Assembly
Israel — Knesset
Italy — Chamber of Deputies and Senate
Japan — Diet
Jordan — National Assembly
Korea(North) — Supreme People's Assembly
Korea(South) — National Assembly
Kuwait — National Assembly
Kenya — National Assembly
Laos — People's Supreme Assembly
Labanon — National Assembly
Lesotho — National Assembly and Senate
Lithuania — Seimas
Luxembourg — Chamber of Deputies
Liberia — National Assembly
Libya — General People's Congress
Malaysia — Dewan Rakyat and Dewan Negara
Maldives — Majlis Madagascar — National People's Assembly
Mongolia — Great People's Khural
Montenegro — Federal Assembly
Mozambique — People's Assembly
Myanmar — Pyithu Hluttaw
Nepal — National Panchayat
Netherlands — The State General
Norway — Storting
New Zealand — Parliament (House of Representative)
Oman — Monarchy
Pakistan — National Assembly & Senate
Paraguay — Senate & Chamber of Deputies
Philippines — The Congress
Papua New Guinea — National Parliament
Poland — Sejm
Romania — Great National Assembly
Russia — Duma & Federal Council
Serbia — Federal Assembly
Senegal — National Assembly
Seychelles — People's Assembly
Somalia — People's Assembly
South Africa — Rep. House of Assembly
Spain — Cortes
Sweden — Riksdag
Saudi Arabia — Majlis Al Shura
Sudan — National Assembly
Switzerland — Federal Assembly
Syria — People's Council
Turkey — Grand National Assembly
Tunisia — National Assembly
USA — Congress
Vietnam — National Assembly
Venezuela — National Congress
Zaire — National Legislative Council
Zambia — National Assembly
FIRST IN INDIA
● British Governor-General : Warren Hastings
● British Governor-General of Independent India : Lord Mountbatten
● Justice of India : Hiralal J. Kania
● Comander-in-Chief of Free India : General K. M. Cariappa
● Chief of Air Staff : Air Marshal Sir Thomas Elmhirst
● Indian Air Chief : Air Marshal S. Mukherjee
● Chief of Army Staff : General M. Rajendra Singh
● Chief of Naval Staff : Vice-Admiral R. D. Katari
● Consmonaut : Sqn. Ldr. Rakesh Sharma
● Emperor of Mughal Dynasty in India : Babar
● Field Marshal : SPFJ Manekshaw
● Governor-General of Indian Union : C. Rajgopalachari
● Indian to get an Oscar : Bhanu Athaiya
● Indian to Reach the South Pole : Col. I. K. Bajaj
● Indian ICS Officer : Satyendra Nath Tagore
● Indian Member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council : Sir S. P. Sinha
● Indian Man to Swim Across the English Channel : Mihir Sen
● Indian Woman to Swim Across the English Channel : Miss Aarti Saha
● Indian Woman to Swim Across the Strait of Gibraltar : Aarti Pradhan
● Man to Climb Mount Everest : Sherpa Tenzing
● Man to Climb Mount Everest without Oxygen : Phu Dorjee
● Man to Climb Mount Everest twice : Nawang Gombu
● Muslim Woman to sit on the throne of Delhi : Razia Sultana
● Nobel Prize Winner : Rabindra Nath Tagore
● President of the Indian National Congress : W. C. Banerjee
● Woman President of the Indian National Congress : Annie Besant
● President to Die in Office : Dr. Zakir Hussain
● Prime Minister to Lose an Election : Indira Gandhi
● Prime Minister to Resign from Office : Morarji Desai
● Deputy Prime Minister : Vallabhbhai Patel
● Talkie Film : Alam Ara (1931)
● Test-tube Baby : Indira (Baby Harsha)
● Viceroy : Lord Canning
● Woman Central Minister : Rajkumari Amrit Kaur
● Woman Chief Minister of a State : Mrs. Sucheta Kripalani
● Woman Governor : Mrs. Sarojini Naidu
● Woman Minister : Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit
● Woman to Climb the Mt. Everest: Bachendri Pal
● Woman Prime Minister : Mrs. Indira Gandhi
● Woman Speaker of a State Assembly : Mrs. Shanno Devi
● Woman Airline Pilot : Durba Banerjee
● Woman to Win an Asiad Gold : Kamaljit Sandhu
● Woman Judge of the Supreme Court : Fathima Beevi
● Woman IPS Officer : Kiran Bedi
● Indian in the British Parliament: Dadabhai Naoroji
● Indian to win Miss Universe Title : Ms Sushmita Sen
● Indian Woman Congress President : Sarojini Naidu (1925)
● Woman President of UN General Assembly : Vijayalakshmi Pandit (1953)
● Woman to Win the Nobel Prize : Mother Teresa (1979)
● Woman to become ‘Miss World : Reeta Faria
● Speaker, Lok Sabha : G. V. Manavalankar (1952-57)
● Chairman Rajya Sabha : S. V. Krishnamoorthy (1952)
● Indian to Pass ICS : Surendra Nath Banerji (1869)
● Indian Pilot : JRD Tata (1929)
● To Reach Antarctica : Lt. Ram Charan (1960)
● Vernacular Daily : Kolkata (1727)
● Telegraph Line Installed : Calcutta to Diamond Harber (1853)
● Silent Movie : Raja Harish Chandra by Dada Saheb Phalke (1913)
● Coloured Cinemascope Film : Pyar ki Pyas (1961)
● Satellite launched : Aryabhatta (1975)
● Indigenously built satellite : Aryabhatta (1975)
● Atomic device exploded at : Pokharan in Rajasthan (1974)
● Large-scale Nuclear Reactor : Apsara (1956)
● Indigenously designed and built missile : Prithvi (1988)
● Member of the Dalit Community to become the President of India : K. R. Narayanan
● DNA typing forensic Laboratory set-up at : Kolkata
● Electric Train started between : Ludhiana and New Delhi
● Science City was inaugurated in : Kolkata
● Actress of Indian Cinema : Kamalabai Gokhale
● Woman Pilot of IAF : Harita Deol
● Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Power Station was established at : Mathania (Rajasthan)
● Indian writer to win the Booker Prize : Arundhati Roy
● Musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna : M. S. Subbulakshmi
● Indian Woman to go into Space : Kalpana Chawla
● Chairman of the Prasar Bharati Board : Nikhil Chakravarthy
● Indian Institution to be awarded Gandhi Peace Prize : Ramakrishna Mission
● Solar city is developed at : Anandpur Sahib
● Woman to win an Olympic medal : Karnam Malleswari
● Woman Foreign Secretary of India : Chokila Iyer
● Indian to win World Billiards Trophy : Wilson Jones
● Indian Grand Master (in Chess) : Vishwanathan Anand
● Chinese pilgrim to visit India : Fahien
● European invader on India soil : Alexender, the great
● Indian to win World Chess Championship : Vishwanathan Anand
● Women Air Vice Marshal : P. Bandopadhyaya
● Lady Cadet of Indian Army : Priya Jhingan
● First Indian to win a medal in the world Athletic Championship : Anju B. George (2003)
● Triple Century Maker in Test Cricket : Virendra Sahwag (2004)
● Hitter of 5 Double Centuries : Rahul Dravid (2004)
● Woman DGP : Kanchan Chaudhury
● Medal winner in Olympic Games : Rajyawardhan Singh Rathore (2004)
● Asian Tennis Champion, WTA champion, Third round winner in Grand Slam Tournament, Grand slam tournament winner Match winner in U.S. open, Youngest awardee of Padamshree : Sania Mirza
● Formula-1 Car Racer : Narayan Kartikeyan
● Indian to be awarded ‘Srilanka Ratn’ : N. Ram
● Woman Commanded the annual passing out parade : Wahida Prizm (2006)
● Five hundred wicket taker in Test cricket: Anil Kumble (2006)
● To the ski to the North Pole : Ajeet Bajaj (2006)
● First Air Chief to to Sky dive : Air Chief S. P. Tyagi (2006)
● First Indian Woman to win a Badminton Grand Prix : Saina Nehwal (2006)
● First President to make sortie in a combat aircraft : Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (2006)
● First Women President : Pratibha Patil (2007)
● First Indian to win Gold Medal in Olympics in individual Event : Abhinav Bindra (2008)
● First Woman Pilot of Fighter Plane : Suman Sharma
● World Cup (Jr.) Badminton, Indonesian Open Winner (Woman) : Saina Nehwal (2009)
● Woman Speaker Lok Sabha : Ms. Meira Kumar (2009)
● Two Oscar Award Winner : A. R. Rehman (2009)
● Regular Decadal Census—Since 1881
● Warship Aircraft Carrier—I. N. S. Vikrant
● National Nuclear Power Submarines—I. N. S. Chakra
● Football Club—Mohan Bagan–1889
● Hydro-electric Project—Shiv Samudram (1902)
● Newspaper—Bengal Gazette (James Hikki)
● Vernacular Daily—Samachar Darpan
● Hindi Newspaper—Udant-Martand
● Telegraph Line—Diamond Harbour to Kolkata (1853)
● International Telephone Service—Mumbai to London (1851)
● Television Centre—New Delhi (1959)
● Colour Programme from T.V.—15th August, 1982
● Silent Film—Raja Harish Chandra
● Talky Film—Alam-ara
● Satellite—Aryabhatta-19th April, 1975
● Atomic underground test—Pokhran (18th May, 1974)
● Test tube baby—1986 born baby Harsha
● Country made missile—Prithvi (1988)
● Antarctica mission—1982 under the leadership Dr. S. Z. Quasim
💞List of Indian Cities on Banks of Rivers😋
⚫️Allahabad➖At the confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati➖Uttar Pradesh
⚫️Srinagar➖Jhelum➖Jammu & Kashmir
⚫️Daman➖Daman Ganga River➖Daman
⚫️Chennai➖Cooum, Adyar➖Tamil Nadu
✅ Banking and Financial Committees in India ✅✔️ Continuous Economy committee - Black Money and The Unaccounted Money✔️ YH Malegam committee - Monitor Bad Loans✔️ Revamps Expert Panel - Market Infrastructure Institutions✔️ Jaitley-led Panel - Inspect the merger proposals of state-owned banks.✔️ M Vinod Kumar Panel - Review of GST laws✔️ Arbind Modi-led Panel - Simplify Income Tax Laws✔️ AK Bhuchar Committee - Coordination Between Term Lending Institutions And Commercial Banks✔️ B Eradi Committee - Insolvency And Wind Up Laws✔️ Wanchoo Committee - Direct Taxes✔️ YV Reddy Committee - Reforms In Small Savings✔️ B Sivaraman Committee - Institutional Credit For Agricultural & Rural Development gaboost✔️ A Ghosh Committee - Frauds & Malpractices In Banks✔️ Abid Hussain Committee - Development Of Capital Markets✔️ Adhyarjuna Committee Changes In NI Act And Stamp Act✔️ G Sundaram Committee - Export Credit gaboost✔️ Gadgil Committee (1969) - Lead Banking System✔️ James Raj Committee - Functioning Of Public Sector Banks gaboost✔️ Jankiramanan Committee - Securities Transactions Of Banks & Financial Institutions✔️ JV Shetty Committee - Consortium Advances✔️ K Madhav Das Committee Urban Cooperative Banks gaboost✔️ Kalyanasundaram Committee - Introduction Of Factoring Services In India gaboost✔️ Kamath Committee - Education Loan Scheme✔️Karve Committee - Small Scale Industry✔️ Godwala Committee - Rural Finance✔️ B Venkatappaiah Committee - All India Rural Credit Review✔️ BD Shah Committee - Stock Lending Scheme✔️ BD Thakar Committee - Job Criteria In Bank Loans (Approach)✔️ Bhagwati Committee - Unemployment✔️ Bhagwati Committee - Public Welfare✔️Bhave Committee - Share Transfer Reforms✔️ Bhide Committee - Coordination Between Commercial Banks And SFC’s Bhootlingam Committee Wage, Income & Prices✔️ C Rao Committee - Agricultural Policy✔️ CE Kamath Committee - Multi-Agency Approach In Agricultural Finance✔️ Chatalier Committee - Finance To Small Scale Industry✔️ Chesi Committee - Direct Taxes✔️ Cook Committee (On Behalf Of BIS – Under Basel Committee ) Capital Adequacy Of Banks✔️ D R Mehta Committee - Review Progress And Recommend Improvement Measures Of IRDP✔️ Damle Committee - MICR✔️ WS Saraf Committee - Technology Issues In Banking Industry✔️ Y H Malegam Committee - Disclosure Norms For Public Issues gaboost✔️ Dandekar Committee - Regional Imbalances✔️ Dantwala Committee - Estimation Of Employment✔️Dave Committee - Mutual Funds (Functioning)✔️ Dharia Committee - Public Distribution System✔️ A Ghosh Committee - Final Accounts✔️DR Gadgil Committee - Agricultural Finance✔️Goiporia Committee - Customer Service In Banks✔️GS Dahotre Committee - Credit Requirements Of Leasing Industry✔️ GS Patel Committee - Carry Forward System On Stock Exchanges gaboost✔️Hathi Committee - Soiled Banknotes✔️Hazari Committee (1967) - Industrial Policy✔️ SS Kohli Committee - Rationalization Of Staff Strength In Bank gaboost✔️ SS Tarapore Committee - Capital Account Convertibility✔️ Dutta Committee - Industrial Licensing✔️A C Shah Committee - NBFC✔️ A Ghosh Committee - Modalities Of Implementation Of New 20 Point Programme✔️G Lakshmi Narayan Committee - Extension Of Credit Limits On Basis Of Consortium gaboost✔️IT Vaz Committee - Working Capital Finance In Banks✔️J Reddy Committee - Reforms In Insurance Sector✔️ KB Chore Committee - To Review The Symbol Of Cash Credit Q
What is special about the Hubble Space Telescope?
Earth's atmosphere changes and blocks some of the light that comes from space. Hubble flies around, or orbits, high above Earth and its atmosphere. So, Hubble can see space better than telescopes on Earth can. Hubble is not the kind of telescope that you look through with your eye.
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is the first major infrared-optical-ultraviolet telescope to be placed into orbit around the Earth. Located high above Earth's obscuring atmosphere, the telescope has provided the clearest views of the universe yet obtained in optical astronomy.
Hubble Telescope Captures Farthest View of the Universe Yet. The Hubble Space Telescope's eXtreme Deep Field image allows scientists to see galaxies more than 13 billion light years away.
Why Water has no colour?
Lab measurements show that water does have a colour, pale blue. Given the blue colour of the sea, that may come as little surprise. But according to Dr Martin Chaplin, an expert on the properties of water, its colour has a specific cause.
Its origins lie in the way the water molecule interacts with incoming light. The molecule’s two hydrogen atoms sit at the ends of two spring-like ‘legs’ joined midway by the oxygen atom. The resulting V-shaped combination can vibrate in various ways, mopping up different wavelengths of light. But it’s particularly effective at absorbing longer, redder wavelengths, while leaving shorter, bluer wavelengths fairly untouched. The result is a pale blue colour. Water scatters shorter wavelengths more effectively, leading to more of the blue component of sunlight reaching our eyes.
What is SunSpot?
Sunspots are darker, cooler areas on the surface of the sun in a region called the photosphere.
A sunspot is basically a magnetic storm on the surface of a star, including our own sun. It results in a slightly cool area which looks darker than the surrounding solar atmosphere. These run in a 22 year cycle, with a minimum every 11 years, and then a magnetic reversal for the next 11 years.
The photosphere has a temperature of 5,800 degrees Kelvin. Sunspots have temperatures of about 3,800 degrees K. They look dark only in comparison with the brighter and hotter regions of the photosphere around them.
Sunspots can be very large, up to 50,000 kilometers in diameter. They are caused by interactions with the Sun's magnetic field which are not fully understood. But a sunspot is somewhat like the cap on a soda bottle: shake it up, and you can generate a big eruption. Sunspots occur over regions of intense magnetic activity, and when that energy is released, solar flares and big storms called coronal mass ejections erupt from sunspots.
NASA Scientists Imagine Studying Venus From A Floating Research Colony
Venus is not a hospitable place for humans. The planet is covered in thick, billowing sulfuric acid clouds, underneath which temperatures reach nearly a thousand degrees Fahrenheit. If you were unfortunate enough to stand on Venus’ volcano-spotted surface, you would feel 100 times more pressure than you would standing on the surface of our own planet, in large part due to its atmosphere.
Naturally, NASA scientists have a lot of questions. A team of them recently announced Project HAVOC, which stands for “High Altitude Venus Operational Concept.” The project details how a 30-day, manned mission to Venus might go down.
And while the operation is purely speculative — much of the necessary technology doesn’t exist yet — it marks the first serious plan for how people might explore our nearest planetary neighbor.
📚📚Books and Author📚📚
➡️Calling Sehmat - Harinder S Sikka
➡️Across the Beach-Insight into the Military Judicial System - Gyan Bhushan
➡️Smart Cities Unbundle -- Dr. Samir Sharma
➡️Hidden India -- Latika Nath ➡️Karma Yatra -- Anandiben Patel
➡️Matmagi Manipur-The first Manipuri Feature Film - Bobby Wahengbam
➡️All Doors Opened - Inder Sharma
➡️My journey from Marxism-Leninism to Nehruvian Socialism - C H Hanumantha Rao
➡️India 's Heritage of Gharana Music :Pandits of Gwalior - Meeta Pandit
➡️Adi Shankaracharya:Hinduism Greatest Thinker - Pavan Varma
➡️Paramveer Parwane - Dr. Prabhakiran Jain
➡️Even when there is a Doctor -- Dr. Yashwant Amdekar
➡️Exam Warriors --Narendra Modi
➡️A Century is not Enough -- Sourav Ganguly
➡️The heartfulness way -- Kamlesh Patel & Joshua Pollock
➡️Dilli Meri Dilli:Before and After 1998 - Sheila Dikshit
➡️Imperfect -- Sanjay Manjrekar ➡️Citizen Delhi:My Times, My Life -- Sheila Dikshit
➡️Indian Instinct -- Dr. Miniya Chatterji
➡️The diary of a Domestic Diva -- Shilpa Shetty
➡️The widows of Malabar Hill -- Sujata Massey
➡️Why I am a Hindu -- Shashi Tharoor
➡️A state of freedom -- Neel Mukherjee
➡️An Unsuitable Boy -- Karan Johar
⏹️Books launched in 2017
➡️Two -- Gulzar
➡️Bollywood:The films! The songs! The stars! -- S.M.M. Aisaja, Karan Bali, Rajesh Devraj and Tanul Thakur
➡️The Way I see it-a Gauri Lankesh Reader -- edited by Chandan Gowda
➡️Dreamnation :Uniting a county with Handwritten Dreams -- Saji Mathew & Jubie John
➡️The Coalition Years -- Pranab Mukherjee
➡️What Happened -- Hillary Clinton
➡️The Golden House -- Salman Rushdie
➡️India 2017 Yearbook -- Rajiv Mehrishi
➡️I do what I do -- Raghuram Rajan
➡️Immortal India -- Amish Tripathi
➡️A horse walk into bar -- David Grossman
➡️How India sees the world -- Shyam Saran
➡️Hit Refresh -- Satya Nadella ➡️Unstoppable :My life so far -- Marie Sharapova
➡️The Shershah of Kargil -- Deepak Surana
➡️Kadve Vachan -- Tarun Sagar Maharaj
➡️I am HIV positive, so what? -- Jayanta Kalita
➡️Cryptocurrency for Beginners -- Amit Bhardwaj
➡️Making of a legend -- Bindeshwar Pathak
➡️Dalhousie through my eyes -- Kiran Chadha
➡️Playing with Fire -- Katie Price
➡️Future of Indian University :Comparative and International Perspective -- C. Raj Kumar
➡️The Ministry of Utmost Happiness -- Arundhati Roy
➡️The Crisis within -- Ganesh Devy
➡️Indira Gandhi :A life in Nature -- Jairam Ramesh
➡️Baren and Luthien -- J.R.R.Tolkien
➡️Yug purush Bharat Ratna Atal ji -- Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank ➡️Matoshree -- Sumitra Mahajan
👉🏽First Capital of India: Kolkata.
👉🏽First port of India: Kolkata.
👉🏽Nobel Laureates of India: 6 out of 7 are from Kolkata.
👉🏽National Poet of India: From Kolkata.
👉🏽National Anthem, Song of India: From Kolkata.
👉🏽The only inspiration for youths by whose name International Youth day is celebrated: Swami Vivekananda is from Kolkata.
👉🏽Largest library in India: Kolkata.
👉🏽Largest Museum in India: Kolkata.
👉🏽The city in India where trams run still as a public transport: Kolkata.
👉🏽India's largest cricket stadium: Eden Gardens, Kolkata.
👉🏽India's largest football stadium: Salt Lake stadium Kolkata (also Asia's largest).
👉🏽Largest Botanical Garden in India: Kolkata (Shibpur Botanical Garden).
👉🏽Largest zoo in India: Kolkata (Alipore Zoo).
👉🏽India's first medical college: Kolkata (Medical college, Kolkata).
👉🏽India's first University: Kolkata (Calcutta University).
👉🏽India's only film director who got an Oscar: from Kolkata (Satyajit Ray).
👉🏽First Miss Universe of India: from Kolkata (Susmita Sen).
👉🏽Largest race course in India: Kolkata.
👉🏽Oldest cricket club of India: Calcutta cricket club.
👉🏽First city in India where Metro rail as a public transport started: Kolkata.
👉🏽The only city of India for which the whole bollywood industry depends when it comes for music and direction: Kolkata.
👉🏽Highest number of Scienctists and doctors are from which city in India: Kolkata.
👉🏽Largest railway station of India: In Kolkata (Howrah).
👉🏽Busiest railway station of India: Kolkata (Sealdah).
👉🏽Only riverine port of India: Kolkata Port.
👉🏽Only Cantilever bridge in India : Howrah Bridge (Kolkata).
👉🏽Largest golf course of India: In Kolkata (Royal Calcutta Golf Club).
👉🏽Largest second hand book market in India: College street ( also second in the world).
15 Important Revolutions in India
▪️ Black Revolution Related with Petroleum Production
▪️ Blue Revolution Related with Fish Production
▪️ Brown Revolution Related with Leather, Cocoa
▪️ Golden Fibre Revolution Related with Jute Production
▪️ Golden Revolution Related with Overall Horticulture, Honey, Fruit Production
▪️ Green Revolution Related with Agriculture Production
▪️ Grey Revolution Related with Fertilizers
▪️ Pink Revolution Related with Onions, Prawn
▪️ Red Revolution Related with Meat, Tomato Production
▪️ Evergreen Revolution Intended for overall agriculture production growth
▪️ Round Revolution Related with Potato Production
▪️ Silver Fibre Revolution Related with Cotton Production
▪️ Best Telegram Channel DailyGkZone
▪️ Silver Revolution Related with Egg Production
▪️ White Revolution Related with Dairy, Milk Production
▪️ Yellow Revolution Related with Oil Seed Production Round Revolution Related with Potato
❄️There were four Buddhist Councils.
❄️These Buddhist Councils are considered as the four milestones in the history of Buddhism. In order to address the issues during that period in Buddhism. They are as follows
❄️First Buddhist Council ( 486 BC) at Rajgriha (the modern city of Rajgir
• King: Ajatasatru, son of King Bimbisara (Haryanka Dynasty).
• Took place 3 months after the Buddha’s Passing.
• The First Buddhist Council collected together and arranged the Buddhist Scriptures known as the Pali Tipitaka.
❄️Second Buddhist Council ( 386 BC) at Vaishali.
• King: Kalasoka (Shisunaga Dynasty).’
❄️Third Buddhist Council (250 BC) at : Pataliputra
• King: Ashoka (Maurya Dynasty).
• Its objective was to reconcile the different schools of Buddhism and to purify the Buddhist movement, particularly from opportunistic factions which had been attracted by the royal patronage.
• The responses to doctrinal questions and disputes formulated at the Third Council were recorded by Moggaliputta Tissa in the Kathavatthu, one of the books of the Abhidhamma Pitaka.
❄️Fourth Buddhist Council (72 AD) at kashmir
• King: Kanishka (Kushan Dynasty) ,was a patron of Buddhism and was instrumental in spreading the religion in north-western borders of India.
Final division of Buddhism into Mahayana & Hinayana sects.
Note: The Theravada Buddhist council in 1871 and Theravada Buddhist council in 1954 are known as Fifth and Sixth Buddhist Councils respectively
Abhidhamma pitaka, dealing with Buddhist philosophy written in Pali.
Archimedes (287 BCE – c. 212 BCE) Archimedes of Syracuse was an ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Amongst other things he calculated pi and developed the Archimedes screw for lifting up water from mines or wells.
cai lunCai Lun (50–121 CE), Chinese inventor of paper. Cai Lun was a Chinese political administrator credited with inventing modern paper and inventing the paper-making process. His invention included the use of raw materials such as bark, hemp, silk and fishing net. The sheets of fibre were suspended in water before removing for drying.
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452–1519) Italian artist, scientist and polymath. Da Vinci invented a huge range of machines and drew models that proved workable 3-500 years later. These included prototype parachutes, tanks, flying machines and single-span bridges. More practical inventions included an optical lens grinder and various hydraulic machines.
Galileo (1564–1642) Italian scientist. Galileo developed a powerful telescope and confirmed revolutionary theories about the nature of the world. Also developed an improved compass.
Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1726) English scientist. Newton invented the reflecting telescope. This greatly improved the capacity of telescopes and reduced optical distortion. Newton was also a great physicist and astronomer.
thomas-saveryThomas Savery (c. 1650–1715) English inventor. Savery patented one of the first steam engines which was pioneered for use in pumping water from mines. This original Savery steam engine was basic, but it was used as a starting point in later developments of the steam engine.
thomas-newcomenThomas Newcomen (1664–1729) English inventor who created the first practical steam engine for pumping water from mines. He worked with Savery’s initial design, but significantly improved it, using atmospheric pressure which was safer and more effective for use in mines to remove water.
jethro-tullJethro Tull (1674–1741) English agricultural entrepreneur. Tull invented the seed drill and horse-drawn hoe. The seed drill improved the efficiency of farming and led to increased yields. It was an important invention in the agricultural revolution which increased yields prior to the industrial revolution.
abraham-darbyAbraham Darby (1678–1717) English Quaker, inventor and businessman. Darby developed a process for producing large quantities of pig iron from coke. Coke smelted iron was a crucial raw material in the industrial revolution.
John Harrison (1693–1776) English carpenter and clockmaker. He invented a device for measuring longitude at sea. This was a crucial invention to improve the safety of navigating the oceans.
Benjamin Franklin (1705–1790) American polymath who discovered electricity and invented the Franklin stove, the lightning rod and bifocals. Franklin was also an American statesman and an influential figure in the development of modern America.
william-cullenWilliam Cullen (1710–1790) Scottish physician and chemist. He is credited with inventing the basis for the first artificial refrigerator, although it took others to make his designs suitable for practical use.
john-wilkinsonJohn Wilkinson (1728–1808) English industrialist. John ‘Iron Mad’ Wilkinson developed the manufacture and use of cast iron. These precision-made cast iron cylinders were important in steam engines.
richard-arkwrightSir Richard Arkwright (1732–1792) English entrepreneur and ‘father of the industrial revolution.’ Arkwright was a leading pioneer of the spinning industry. He invented the spinning frame and was successful in using this in mass-scale factory production.
James Watt (1736–1819) Scottish inventor of the steam engine, which was suitable for use in trains. His invention of a separate condensing chamber greatly improved the efficiency of steam. It enabled the steam engine to be used for a greater range of purpose than just pumping water.
allesandro-voltaAlessandro Volta (1745–1827), Italian physicist, credited with inventing the battery. Volta invented the first electrochemical battery cell. It used zinc, copper and an electrolyte, such as sulphuric acid and water.
humphrey-davySir Humphrey Davy (1778–1829) English inventor of the Davy lamp. The lamp could be used by miners in areas where methane gas existed because the design prevented a flame escaping the fine gauze.
Charles Babbage (1791–1871) English mathematician and inventor. Babbage created the first mechanical computer, which proved to be the prototype for future computers. Considered to be the ‘Father of Computers,’ despite not finishing a working model.
Michael Faraday (1791–1867) English scientist who helped convert electricity into a format that could be easily used. Faraday discovered benzene and also invented an early form of the Bunsen burner.
samuel-morseSamuel Morse (1791–1872) American inventor Morse used principles of Jackson’s electromagnet to develop a single telegraph wire. He also invented Morse code, a method of communicating via telegraph.
henry-fox-talbotWilliam Henry Fox Talbot (1800–1877) British Victorian pioneer of photography. He invented the first negative, which could make several prints. He is known for inventing the calotype process (using Silver Chloride) of taking photographs.
louis-brailleLouis Braille (1809–1852) French inventor. Louis Braille was blinded in a childhood accident. He developed the Braille system of reading for the blind. He also developed a musical Braille, for reading music scores.
kirkpatrick-macmillanKirkpatrick Macmillan (1812–1878) Scottish inventor of the pedal bicycle. Kirkpatrick’s contribution was to make a rear wheel driven bicycle through the use of a chain, giving the basic design for the bicycle as we know it today.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) Scottish physicist and inventor. Maxwell invented the first process for producing colour photography. Maxwell was also considered one of the greatest physicists of the millennium.
karl-benzKarl Benz (1844–1929), German inventor and businessman. Benz developed the petrol-powered car. In 1879, Benz received his first patent for a petrol-powered internal combustion engine, which made an automobile car practical. Benz also became a successful manufacturer.
Thomas Edison (1847–1931) American inventor who filed over 1,000 patents. He developed and innovated a wide range of products from the electric light bulb to the phonograph and motion picture camera. One of the greatest inventors of all time.
Alexander Bell (1847–1922) Scottish scientist credited with inventing the first practical telephone. Also worked on optical telecommunications, aeronautics and hydrofoils.
Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) American Physicist who invented fluorescent lighting, the Tesla coil, the induction motor, 3-phase electricity and AC electricity.
rudolf-dieselRudolf Diesel (1858–1913), German inventor of the Diesel engine. Diesel sought to build an engine which had much greater efficiency. This led him to develop a diesel-powered combustion engine.
eduord-michelinÉdouard Michelin (1859–1940), French inventor of a pneumatic tire. John Dunlop invented the first practical pneumatic tyre in 1887. Michelin improved on this initial design to develop his own version in 1889.
Marie Curie (1867–1934) Polish born French chemist and physicist. Curie discovered Radium and helped make use of radiation and X-rays.
The Wright Brothers (1871–1948) American inventors who successfully designed, built and flew the first powered aircraft in 1903.
Alexander Fleming (1881–1955), Scottish scientist. Fleming discovered the antibiotic penicillin by accident from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928.
John Logie Baird (1888–1946) Scottish inventor who invented the television and the first recording device.
enrico-fermiEnrico Fermi (1901–1954) Italian scientist who developed the nuclear reactor. Fermi made important discoveries in induced radioactivity. He is considered the inventor of the nuclear reactor.
oppenheimerJ. Robert Oppenheimer (1904–1967), United States – Atomic bomb. Oppenheimer was in charge of the Manhattan project which led to the creation of the first atomic bomb, later dropped in Japan. He later campaigned against his own invention.
Alan_TuringAlan Turing (1912–1954) English 20th century mathematician, pioneer of computer science. He developed the Turing machine, capable of automating processes. It could be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm.
robert-noyceRobert Noyce (1927–1990) American 20th-century electrical engineer. Along with Jack Kilby, he invented the microchip or integrated circuit. He filed for a patent in 1959. The microchip fueled the computer revolution.
james-dysonJames Dyson (1947– ) British entrepreneur. He developed the bag-less vacuum cleaner using Dual Cyclone action. His Dyson company has also invented revolutionary hand dryers.
Tim Berners-Lee (1955– ) British computer scientist. Tim Berners-Lee is credited with inventing the World Wide Web, which enabled the internet to display websites viewable on internet browsers. He developed the http:// protocol for the internet and made the world wide web freely available.
steve-jobsSteve Jobs (1955–2011) American entrepreneur and developer. Jobs helped revolutionise personal computer devices with the iPod, iPad, Macbook and iPhone. He is credited with inventing the new wave of hand-held personal computer devices.
National Productivity Council
NPC is national level organization to promote productivity culture in India. Established by the Ministry of Industry, Government of India in 1958, it is an autonomous, multipartite, non-profit organization with equal representation from employers’ & workers’ organizations and Government, apart from technical & professional institutions and other interests.
NPC is a constituent of the Tokyo-based Asian Productivity Organisation (APO), an Inter Governmental Body, of which the Government of India is a founder member.
NPC teams up with its clients to work out solutions towards accelerating productivity, enhancing competitiveness, increasing profits, augmenting safety and reliability and ensuring better quality. It provides reliable database for decision-making, improved systems and procedures, work culture as well as customer satisfaction both internal & external. The solutions can be all-encompassing or specific depending on the nature of the problem. The council also helps monitor, review and implement the identified strategies. Promotional and catalytic in nature, NPC’s services have bearings on economic growth and quality of life. The Council promotes a comprehensive view of productivity focused on improving triple bottom line – economic, environmental and social and adds value for all the stakeholders through generation & application of advanced knowledge for inclusive Growth.
The Union Minister for Industry is the President of the NPC, and the Secretary (Industrial Policy and Promotion) is its Chairman. The Director General is the CEO. NPC has 12 Regional Offices, located in major State Capitals/industrial centre with Corporate Headquarters in New Delhi and has strength of around 120 full time professional/consultants. In addition, services of outside specialists and faculty are also enlisted on projects based requirements.
01 May: May Day, International Labour Day
03 May: World Press Freedom Day; World Press Freedom Day
04 May: International Firefighters’ Day, Star Wars Day
05 May: International Midwives Day
08 May: World Red Cross and Red Crescent Day
09 May: Europe day
11 May: National Technology Day
12 May: International Nurses Day; World Migratory Bird Day; International Nurses Day
15 May: International Day of Families; International Day of Families
16 May: National Dengue Day
17 May: World Hypertension Day; World Telecommunication and Information Society
Day; World Telecommunication and Information Society Day; World AIDS Vaccine
Day; International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia
18 May: International AIDS Candlelight Memorial; International Museum Day 20 May:
Vesak, the Day of the Full Moon
21 May: World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development;
22 May: International Day for Biological Diversity; World Goth Day
23 May: World Turtle Day
25 May: Geek Pride Day
29 May: International Day of UN Peacekeepers 31 May: World No-Tobacco Day; World
8-9 May: Time of Remembrance and Reconciliation for Those Who Lost Their Lives
during the Second World War 12-13 May: World Migratory Bird Day
1st Tuesday of May: World Asthma Day
2nd Saturday of May: World Fair Trade Day
PM Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan
Why in news?
The Union Government has launched Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) to provide free health check-ups to pregnant women at government health centres and hospitals.
What is PM Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan?
• PMSMA aim to reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) through safe pregnancies and safe deliveries.
• Target Beneficiaries: All pregnant women who are in their 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of pregnancy. It is expected to provide free antenatal care to about 3 crore pregnant women across the country.
• The services would be provided by gynecology specialists/ physicians with support from private sector doctors.In addition to antenatal checkups, services like ultrasound, blood, and urine tests will be provided to the beneficiaries.
eNAM is pan-India electronic trading portal for farm produce which aims creates unified national market for agricultural commodities by integrating existing Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC) markets. It provides single window service for all APMC related services and information, such as commodity arrivals and prices, provision for responding to trade offers, buy and sell trade offers, among other services. It was launched in April 2016. It is being implemented in different phases to integrate 585 regulated markets across country with common e-market platform by March 2018. Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium (SFAC) is the lead promoter of eNAM. On this platform, farmers can showcase their produce online from their nearest market and traders can quote price from anywhere. It aims to foster greater competition among traders and also ensure open price discovery and better returns to farmers.
National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights
The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) was established in March 2007 as a statutory body under the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005. It was set up to protect, promote and defend child rights in the country. The Commission consists of a chairperson and six members who are well versed in child welfare. National commission develops an electronic drop box, POCSO e-Box for registering complaints on Child Sexual Abuse.
Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA)
Critical Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA) are ecologically sensitive areas identified as under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 such as:
¾ Sunderban region of West Bengal.
¾ Gulf of Khambat and Gulf of Kutchchh in Gujarat.
¾ Malvan, Achra-Ratnagiri in Maharashtra.
¾ Karwar and Coondapur in Karnataka.
¾ Vembanad in Kerala.
¾ Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu.
¾ Bhaitarkanika in Odisha.
¾ Coringa, East Godavari and Krishna in Andhra Pradesh.
1. For crop does India have the largest cultivated area in the world?
2. When was the Madras State renamed Tamil Nadu?
3. Which law directly explains the law of conservation of mass?
4. What the wind is deflected due of the rotation of the earth?
5. Who built the stupa at Sanchi in Madhya Pradesh?
6. After textiles, which is India’s second important industry?
7. Which books was written by Tilak?
8. Which gas is absorbed during photosynthesis?
9. Which country leads in fish catches?
10. Which temple got the name of Black Pagoda?
11. Which is an extra Constitutional and non-statutory body?
12. Which are the space waves are affected seriously by atmospheric conditions?
13. Who has written the famous book ‘Anna Karenina’?
14. Which type of climate is known for the maximum diurnal range of temperature?
15. By whom was the first weekly Bengali newspaper ‘Samachar Darpan’ published?
16. Which State stands first in the length of roads in the country?
17. Which type of cell has the ability to develop into any type of all ?
18. With what subject do the Articles 5 to 8 of the Constitution of India deal?
19. Which characteristic is NOT found in the convectional rainfall ?
20. Who was founder of Boy Scouts and Civil Guides Movement in India? ******************************Answer :
1. Rice 2. 1969 3. Avogadro’s law 4. Geostropic wind 5. Ashoka 6. Iron and steel 7. Gita Rahasya 8. CO2
9. Japan 10.
Sun Temple 11. Planning Commission 12. UHF 13. Leo Tolstoy 14. Hot desert 15. Marshman 16. Maharashtra 17.
Stem cell 18. Citizenship 19. Drizzling 20. Baden Powell
✔️🔮✔️Sir Osborne Smith was the first Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, CD Deshmukh was the first Indian Governor of RBI.
✔️🔮✔️Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established in 1935 and Nationalized in 1949.
✔️🔮✔️The first bank of limited liability managed by Indians was Oudh Commercial Bank founded in 1881.
✔️🔮✔️Bank of Hindustan in 1770 is the first bank set up in India
✔️🔮✔️The first presidency of SBI was established in Kolkata in 1806 during the British Raj and was named as Bank of Bengal.
✔️🔮✔️In 1921, these three SBI branches were made to merge to form ‘Imperial Bank of India’.
✔️🔮✔️The largest bank – Imperial Bank of India – was nationalised in 1955 and rechristened as State Bank of India (SBI), followed by formation of its 7 Associate Banks in 1959.
✔️🔮✔️The Government of India issued an ordinance on 19 July 1969 acquiring ownership and control of 14 major banks in the country. Six more commercial banks were nationalised from 15 April 1980.
✔️🔮✔️Bank of India is the first Indian Bank to open overseas branch. It established a branch in London in 1946.
✔️🔮✔️Allahabad Bank is the oldest existing public sector bank in India.
✔️🔮✔️State Bank of India is the first joint stock Bank of British India
✔️🔮✔️Central Bank of India is first Bank to introduce Credit Card in India
✔️🔮✔️Allahabad Bank is the First Joint Stock Bank of India
✔️🔮✔️Comptoire d’Escompte de Paris of France in 1860 is the first Foreign Bank in India
✔️🔮✔️Savings account system in India was started by Presidency Bank, in 1833.
✔️🔮✔️ICICI Bank was the first Bank to provide Mobile ATM.
✔️🔮✔️Cheque system was first introduced by Bengal Bank which was established in 1784.
✔️🔮✔️ICICI Bank was the first Indian Bank to provide internet banking facility.
✔️🔮✔️Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) introduced first time ATM in India in 1987, Mumbai.
✔️🔮✔️NPCI launched the first Gramin bank ATM card with the Kashi Gomti Samyut Gramin Bank in association with Union Bank of India in Varanasi. The card is called RuPay Gramin Card.
✔️🔮✔️India’s first non-bank owned ATM opens in Maharashtra, Private sector lender Federal Bank announced its tie-up with Tata Communications Payment Solutions Ltd as the sponsor bank to deploy White Label ATMs
✔️🔮✔️Punjab National Bank is the first Indian bank started with Indian capital /indigenous Bank of India
✔️🔮✔️John Mathai was first chairman of State Bank of India
✔️🔮✔️Arundhati Bhattacharya is the first women chairperson of State Bank of India.
✔️🔮✔️India’s first “talking” Automated Teller Machine (ATM) launched by Union Bank of India (UBI) for visually impaired was launched in Ahmedabad (Gujarat).
✔️🔮✔️Syndicate Bank started the first Regional Rural Bank name Prathama Grameen Bank
What is Slum Daud ?
The Slum Yuva Daud is part of the Adopt Slum Campaign initiated by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports and Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan. The Slum Yuva Daud & Adopt Slum campaigns aim at highlighting the government’s pro-people schemes among masses.
Participation: the campaign will involve groups like NSS, public schools, RWAs, NGOs, rotary clubs etc.
It is an international treaty
It aims conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands
The convention provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the confederation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
It was signed in Ramsar Iran, in 1971
India is one of the 169 signatories to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
There are 2,241 Ramsar sites across the world
In India 26 sites are Ramsar site, which are spread across India from Wular Lake
in Jammu and Kashmir to Ashtamudi Wetland in Kerala, and from Deepor Beel
in Assam to Nalsarovar in Gujarat.
The Ramsar Convention is the only global environmental treaty that deals with a particular ecosystem.
List of Important International Organizations and their Headquarters
1. World Trade Organization (WTO) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Roberto Azevedo
Founded on – 1 January 1995
2. World Health Organization (WHO) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Dr Margaret Chan
Founded on – 7 April 1948
3. World Economic Forum (WEF) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Klaus Schwab
Founded on – 1971
4. World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO Also called OMPI) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Francis Gurry
Founded on – July 14, 1967
5. International Labour Organisation (ILO/OIT) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Guy Ryder
Founded on – 1919
6. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Mukhisa Kituyi
Founded on – 1964
7. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Petteri Taalas
Founded on – 1950
8. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) –
Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
Head – Peter Maurer
Founded on – 1863
9. International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
Headquarters – Washington DC, US
Head – Christine Lagarde
Founded on – 27 December 1945
10. The World Bank –
Headquarters – Washington DC, US
Founded on – July 1944
11. United Nations Organization (UN) –
Headquarters – New York, US
Head – António Guterres
Founded on – 1945
12. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) –
Headquarters – New York, US
Head – Anthony Lake
Founded on – December 1946
13. United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) –
Headquarters – New York, US
Head – Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin
Founded on – 1969
14. Asian Development Bank –
Headquarters – Manila, Philippines
Founded on – 22 August 1966
15. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) –
Headquarters – Beijing, China
Head – Jin Liqun
Founded on – 4 October 2014
16. New Development Bank (BRICS Development Bank) –
Headquarters – Shanghai, China
Head – K. V. Kamath
Founded on – July 2015
17. United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) –
Headquarters – Paris, France
Head – Irina Bokova
Founded on – 16 November 1945
18. Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) –
Headquarters – Paris, France
Head – Jose Angel Gurria
Founded on – 30 September 1961
19. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) –
Headquarters – Brussels, Belgium
Head – Jens Stoltenberg
Founded on – 4 April 1949
20. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) –
Headquarters – Singapore
Head – Dr. Alan Bollard
Founded on – 1989
21. Association of South East Nations (ASEAN) –
Headquarters – Jakarta, Indonesia
Founded on – 8 August 1967
22. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) –
Headquarters – Kathmandu, Nepal
Founded on – 8 December 1985
23. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) –
Headquarters – London, UK
Head – Kitack Lim
Founded on – 1959
24. Amnesty International –
Headquarters – London, UK
Head – Salil Shetty
Founded on – July 1961
25. Commonwealth of Nations –
Headquarters – London, UK
Head – Queen Elizabeth II
Founded on – 28 April 1949
26. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) –
Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
Head – Yukiya Amano
Founded on – July 29, 1957
27. United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) –
Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
Head – Li Yong
Founded on – 1966
28. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) –
Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
Head – Mohammed Barkindo
Founded on – 1961-62
29. International Olympic Committee (IOC) –
Headquarters – Lausanne, Switzerland
Head – Thomas Bach
Founded on – 23 June 1894
30. International Cricket Council (ICC) –
Headquarters – Dubai, UAE
Head – David Richardson (CEO)
Founded on – 15 June 1909
31. The Fédération International de Football Association (FIFA) –
Headquarters – Zurich, Switzerland
Head – Gianni Infantino
International Seabed Authority
It is an intergovernmental body that organizes, regulates and control all mineral (non-living resources) related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
HQ : Jamaica
It functions under the aegis of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
It has an observer status to UN
Why in news? India extended contract with ISA to explore Polymetallic Nodules in Indian Ocean.
River : Origin
1. Satluj : Rakas Lake
2. Indus : Bokhar Chu glacier
3. Jhelum : Spring at Verinag
4. Chenab : Chandra and Bhaga stream
5. Ravi : Rohtang pass in the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh
6. Beas : Beas Kund in Rohtang Pass
7. Ghaghara : Mapchachugo glacier
8. Son : Amarkantak plateau
9. Kaveri : Brahmagiri hills
10. Krishna : Mahabaleshwar in Sahayadri
11. Narmada : Amarkantak plateau
12. Godavari : Rises near Nasik District of Maharashtra.
: The centrally sponsored programme commenced in 2008-09 aimed at installing simple Stand Alone Water Purification Systems (SAWPS) in rural schools to enable school children to have access to safe and clean water. It is 100% central sponsored scheme. This is done by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
June 04: International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
June 05: World Environment Day
June 08: World Ocean Day
June 12: World Day Against Child Labour
June 14: World Blood Donor Day
June 20: International Refugee Day
June 21: International Music Day, International Yoga Day
June 26: International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
Major Tribes in India: Arranged State-wise💎💎
1. Andhra Pradesh: Andh, Sadhu Andh, Bhagata, Bhil, Chenchus (Chenchawar), Gadabas, Gond, Goundu, Jatapus, Kammara, Kattunayakan, Kolawar, Kolam, Konda, Manna Dhora, Pardhan, Rona, Savaras, Dabba Yerukula, Nakkala, Dhulia, Thoti, Sugalis.
2. Arunachal Pradesh: Apatanis, Abor, Dafla, Galong, Momba, Sherdukpen, Singpho.
3. Assam: Chakma, Chutiya, Dimasa, Hajong, Garos, Khasis, Gangte.
4. Bihar: Asur, Baiga, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Gond, Parhaiya, Santhals, Savar.
5. Chhattisgarh: Agariya, Bhaina, Bhattra, Biar, Khond, Mawasi, Nagasia.
6. Goa: Dhodia, Dubia, Naikda, Siddi,Varli.
7. Gujarat: Barda, Bamcha, Bhil, Charan, Dhodia, Gamta, Paradhi, Patelia.
8. Himachal Pradesh: Gaddis, Gujjars, Khas, Lamba, Lahaulas, Pangwala, Swangla.
9. Jammu and Kashmir: Bakarwal, Balti, Beda, Gaddi, Garra, Mon, Purigpa, Sippi.
10. Jharkhand: Birhors, Bhumij, Gonds, Kharia, Mundas, Santhals, Savar.
11. Karnataka: Adiyan, Barda, Gond, Bhil, Iruliga, Koraga, Patelia, Yerava.
12. Kerala: Adiyan, Arandan, Eravallan, Kurumbas, Malai arayan, Moplahs, Uralis.
13. Madhya Pradesh: Baigas, Bhils, Bharia, Birhors, Gonds,Katkari, kharia, Khond, Kol, Murias.
14. Maharashtra: Bhaina, Bhunjia, Dhodia, Katkari, Khond, Rathawa, Warlis.
15. Manipur: Aimol, Angami, Chiru, Kuki, Maram, Monsang, Paite, Purum, Thadou.
16. Meghalaya: Chakma, Garos, Hajong, Jaintias Khasis, Lakher, Pawai, Raba.
17. Mizoram: Chakma, Dimasa, Khasi, Kuki, Lakher, Pawai, Raba, Synteng.
18. Nagaland: Angami, Garo, Kachari, Kuki, Mikir, Nagas, Sema.
19. Odisha: Gadaba, Ghara, Kharia, Khond, Matya, Oraons, Rajuar, Santhals.
20. Rajasthan: Bhils, Damaria, Dhanka, Meenas(Minas), Patelia, Sahariya.
21. Sikkim: Bhutia, Khas, Lepchas.
22. Tamil Nadu: Adiyan, Aranadan, Eravallan, Irular, Kadar, Kanikar, Kotas, Todas.
23. Telangana: Chenchus.
24. Tripura: Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal, Chakma, Halam, Khasia, Lushai, Mizel, Namte.
25. Uttarakhand: Bhotias, Buksa, Jannsari, Khas, Raji, Tharu.
26. Uttar Pradesh: Bhotia, Buksa, Jaunsari, Kol, Raji, Tharu.
27. West Bengal: Asur, Khond, Hajong, Ho, Parhaiya, Rabha, Santhals, Savar.
28. Andaman and Nicobar: Oraons, Onges, Sentinelese, Shompens.
29. Little Andaman: Jarawa.
30. North-East: Abhors, Chang, Galaong, Mishimi, Singpho, Wancho.
Why in news?
India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, in its forty second flight (PSLV-C40), successfully launched the 710 kg Cartosat-2 F Satellite for earth observation and 30 co-passenger satellitesbelonging to India, Canada, Finland, France, Republic of Korea, UK and the USA together weighing about 613 kg at lift-off from Sriharikota.
What is Cartosat series?
These are Earth observation satellites indigenously built by India. A total of 8 satellites have been launched so far in this series.
Cartosat series is part of the Earth Remote Sensing Programme launched for Earth’s resource management and monitoring
Why in news?
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs has approved the proposal to continue the MPLAD Scheme beyond the 12th Plan period (2012-17) up to March 31, 2020, an official statement said today.
What is MPLAD scheme?
Members of Parliament Local Area Development (MPLAD) Scheme provides that each MP has the choice to suggest to the Head of the District works to the tune of ₹5 crore per year, to be taken up in his/her constituency.
Initially, this scheme was administered by Ministry of Rural Development. Later, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) has been looking into its working.
Elected Members of RajyaSabha and nominated members of both Houses may select works for implementation in one or more district(s) as they may choose.
It also allows MPs to spend up to ₹10 lakh in any other constituency in India.
International Organisations and their Headquarters and Formation Day/Year
🔵United Nations Organisation (U.N.O.) ➖ New York, USA ➖ 24.10.1945
🔵United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF)➖New York, USA➖11.12.1945
🔵United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)➖New York, USA➖1969
🔵UN Women➖New York, USA➖2010
🔵United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)➖Paris, France➖16.11.1945
🔵Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)➖Paris, France➖30.09.1961
🔵United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)➖Vienna, Austria➖1966
🔵International Atomic Energy Agency➖Vienna, Austria➖29.07.1957
🔵Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)➖Vienna, Austria➖Sep 1960
🔵International Monetary Fund (IMF)➖Washington DC, USA➖27.12.1945
🔵World Bank➖Washington DC, USA➖July 1944
🔵Amnesty International➖London➖July 1961
🔵International Maritime Organisation➖London➖1954
🔵International Court Of Justice➖The Hague, The Netherlands➖1945
🔵Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)➖Rome➖16.10.1945
🔵North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)➖Brussels, Belgium➖04.04.1949
🔵Transparency International➖Berlin, Germany➖1993
🔵International Renewable Energy Agency➖Abu Dhabi (UAE)➖26.01.2009
🔵South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation➖Kathmandu, Nepal➖08.12.1985
🔵Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)➖Jakarta, Indonesia➖08.08.1967
🔵Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)➖Singapore➖1989
🔵Organisation of Islamic Cooperation➖Jeddah, Saudi Arabia➖25.09.1969
🔵Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation➖Ebene, Mauritius➖06.03.1997
🔵Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons➖The Hague, The Netherlands➖29.04.1997
🔵International Hydrographic Organization ➖ Monaco➖21.06.1921
🔵International Chamber of Commerce ➖ Paris, France ➖1919
🔵Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) ➖ Los Angeles, USA ➖ 18.09.1998
🔵International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) ➖ Paris, France ➖ 1965
🔵Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) ➖ Washington D.C., USA ➖ 1993
🔵South Asian Wildlife Enforcement Network (SAWEN) ➖ Kathmandu, Nepal ➖ Jan 2011
🌏International Organisations in Switzerland🌏
🔴United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1964
🔴World Health Organisation➖Geneva, Switzerland➖07.04.1948
🔴International Labour Organisation➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1919
🔴International Committee of the Red Cross➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1863
🔴World Trade Organisation➖Geneva, Switzerland➖01.01.1995
🔴World Meteorological Organisation➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1950
🔴World Intellectual Property Organization➖Geneva, Switzerland➖14.07.1967
🔴International Organization for Standardization➖Geneva, Switzerland➖23.02.1947
🔴World Economic Forum➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1971
🔴Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) or Doctors without Borders➖Geneva, Switzerland➖20.12.1971
🔴International Organization of Migration (IOM)➖Geneva, Switzerland➖1951
🔴International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry➖Zurich, Switzerland➖1919
🔴Worldwide Fund for Nature➖Gland, Switzerland➖29.04.1961
🔴International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)➖Gland, Switzerland➖05.10.1948
🔴Universal Postal Union➖Berne, Switzerland➖09.10.1874
SCHEMES launched by STATES
•Punjab -- Mukh Mantri Punjab Hepatitis C Relief Fund
• Gujrat-- Smart Village program
• Odisha-- Green Passage Scheme
• Andhra Pradesh-- Chandranna Bima Yojana
• Himachal Pradesh-- Padhai bhi, Safai bhi
• Assam-- Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS)
• TamilNadu-- free bus pass scheme forsenior citizens
• Maharashtra-- Bharatratna Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Special Collective Incentive Scheme
• Telangana-- M-Wallet
• Haryana-- Project Salamati
• Haryana-- Adapting Homes for the Differently-abled
• Andhra Pradesh-- first river linking project lift irrigation
• Uttar Pradesh-- Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana
• Punjab-- swine f lu (H1N1) under the Epidemic Disease Act.
• Uttar Pradesh-- set up old age homes
• New Delhi-- Clean Street Food
• Uttar Pradesh-- Swadhar Greh scheme
• Andhra Pradesh-- National Energy Efficient Agriculture Pumps Programme, & National Energy Efficient Fan Programme
• Bhopal-- UrjaDaksh LED Bulb UjalaYojana
• Gujrat-- Maa Annapurna Yojna
• Jharkhand-- Bhimrao Ambedkar AwasYojana for widows
• Jammu-- Mufti Mohammad Sayeed Food Entitlement Scheme
• Haryana-- Deen Dayal Jan Awas Yojana
• Karnataka-- Mukhyamantri Santwana Harish Yojana
• Jammu -- Udaan Scheme
• Karnataka -- Housing scheme for Transgenders
• West Bengal-- Utkarsh Bangla Scheme for school- dropout
• Tamilnadu-- Amma Kudineer Thittam
• Chattisgarh--Udyam Aakansha
• Jharkhand-- pension scheme for all the widows • Himachal Pradesh-- PEHAL
• Haryana-- first ‘Gyps Vulture Reintroduction Programme
• Bihar-- Right to Public Grievance Redressal Act
• Odisha-- transgender people social welfare benefits
• Haryana-- Jai Jawan Awas Yojna
• Himachal Pradesh-- Setu Bhartam project
• Assam-- Ease of Doing Business Bill, 2016
• Delhi-- DVAT M SEWA
• Bihar-- 100 Jan Aushadhi Kendras
• Rajasthan-- RajVayu
• Internet Saathi-- by Google India and Tata Trusts in -- West Bengal
• Rajkot , Gujrat-- Swachh Map
• West Bengal-- Panchayat Pratikar
• Bihar-- Child Labour Tracking System
• Puducherry-- HelpAge SOS App
• Indian Railway-- NIVARAN portal
• Chattisgarh-- first commercial disputeresolution centre and a commercial court
• Rajasthan-- minimum wages for part-time workers
• HRD-- Prashikshak
• Assam-- File tracking
• Telangana-- Mission Kakatiya programme
• Haryana-- Satkar Bhojan canteens
• Telangana-- Haritha Haram
• Odisha-- 100 Adarsha Vidyalayas
• Kerala-- Fat Tax--14.5
• Andhra Pradesh-- Smart Pulse Survey
• Maharastra Police-- Pratisaad-Ask, PoliceMitra,Vah anchoritakrar & Railway helpline app
• Meghalaya-- PradhanMantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan
• Bihar-- Rural development project JEEViKA-II
• Kerala-- pension scheme for transgenders
• Arunachal Pradesh-- AapnaLohit
• Madhya Pradesh-- Happiness Department
• Uttar Pradesh-- Hausla Paushan scheme
• Mizoram-- Economic Development Policy
• Maharastra -- facility of virtual and digital classrooms across 32 ITIs
• Haryana-- online filing of PerformanceAppraisal Report
• Puducherry-- SwachhBalSenas Indian Railway-- Tri-NETRA
• Kerala-- insurance scheme for 2.5 mn migrant labourers
• Telangana and Andhra Pradesh--Integrated Criminal Justice System